# How To “Calculate” The Compressor Release Time Correctly

In the intricate world of audio mixing and mastering, the Internet often buzzes with tips and formulas, some of which can be misleading or oversimplified. One such topic that has garnered attention is the alleged calculation of release time in audio compressors based on tempo.

Let’s demystify this misconception and find out how to correctly calculate the audio compressor’s release time.

## The Formula

Countless online resources and mixing “gurus” advocate a seemingly straightforward formula: 60000 divided by the tempo equals the release time in milliseconds for an audio compressor. This formula suggests a correlation between the tempo of a track, measured in beats per minute (BPM), and the release time setting of a compressor.

The BPM (beats per minute) formula, where 60000 is divided by the tempo, is commonly used in music production to calculate time intervals, particularly for time-based parameters or synchronized effects, such as reverb or delay.

## The Misconception

Firstly, let’s emphasize a fundamental truth: the release time of an audio compressor isn’t determined by a direct mathematical formula. Instead, it’s a nuanced parameter that profoundly affects the dynamics and character of the audio signal being processed.

The release time in a compressor signifies how swiftly the compressor recovers to its original state after the input signal drops below the set threshold. This setting significantly influences the perceived impact of the audio compression, affecting both transparency and artistic intent in audio production.

## The Theory Doesn’t Hold Up​

The fallacy of linking release time to tempo arises from an oversimplification of the multifaceted nature of audio dynamics. While tempo influences the rhythmic structure of music, it doesn’t dictate the technical settings of a compressor.

The release time setting depends on several critical factors:

1. Material and Genre: Different musical genres and audio materials demand distinct treatment. A rapid release time might suit percussive elements, while melodic instruments or vocals may require a more gradual release to preserve natural dynamics.
2. Artistic Intent: Audio engineering isn’t merely about technical precision but also about artistic expression. The choice of release time impacts the feel and vibe of the music, aligning with the producer’s creative vision.
3. Dynamic Range and Transients: Consideration of the song’s dynamic range and transients influences the optimal release time. Balancing control over peaks without sacrificing the transient impact is crucial.

## Practical Example: Taming Dynamic Peaks in a Vocal Track

Imagine you’re tasked with mixing a soulful ballad featuring a dynamic vocal performance. The vocalist delivers passionate phrases with varying intensities, resulting in peaks that occasionally exceed the desired level in the mix.

Applying compression to the vocal track is essential to maintain consistency and control these dynamic fluctuations. However, the misconception of using a tempo-based release time formula might lead to an inadequate or inappropriate setting, so the compressor may come back too soon or too late to compress the next transient.

Instead, let’s approach this scenario with a deeper understanding of release time:

• Listening and Analysis: Start by critically listening to the vocal track. Identify the sections where the peaks occur and assess the dynamics of the performance. Notice the nuances, such as the vocalist’s emotive transitions between phrases.
• Choosing an Initial Release Time: Set a moderate release time on the compressor. Aim for a release setting that allows the compressor to smoothly react to the vocal dynamics without overly squashing or causing unnatural artifacts.
• Experimentation and Adjustment: Engage the compressor and gradually adjust the release time while listening attentively. Notice how shorter release times might excessively flatten the performance, robbing it of its natural expressiveness. Conversely, longer release times might fail to control peaks sufficiently.
• Fine-Tuning Based on Sensitivity: Focus on finding the sweet spot. A release time that balances control over peaks while preserving the vocalist’s emotive delivery. It might involve subtle tweaks, possibly in milliseconds, to achieve the desired outcome.
• Result-Oriented Decision Making: Ultimately, the choice of release time isn’t solely driven by a mathematical relationship to tempo but by how it serves the musical context.

A slower, more deliberate ballad might benefit from a longer release time, allowing the dynamics to breathe naturally. On the other way, an uptempo track might necessitate a quicker release for tighter control.

By approaching the compression of the vocal track in this manner, guided by attentive listening and informed decision-making, you transcend the limitations of a formulaic approach. The emphasis shifts from adhering to a generic rule to tailoring compression settings that enhance the emotive impact and authenticity of the vocal performance within the mix.

This practical example underscores the importance of a nuanced understanding of release time in compression, showcasing that its optimal setting is a product of careful consideration, attentive ears, and a deep comprehension of the musical material you work with.

## My Personal Approach

As a sound engineer, relying strictly on formulas like 60000/BPM to calculate the release time of an audio compressor isn’t the best approach. While this formula can provide a rough estimate, it doesn’t take into account the complex nuances and specific characteristics of the audio material I’m working with.

I believe that setting the release time in audio compression should be highly context-dependent. It’s about adjusting the settings based on critical listening and the desired sonic outcome rather than sticking to a mathematical formula.

Still, the formula can be a useful starting point or a reference for time-based effects like the delay, but for audio compression, a more nuanced and iterative approach is necessary.

In certain situations, such as applying compression to a drum loop with a consistent kick pattern typical in House music, a mathematical formula might seem applicable.

However, I find this approach limited and often inadequate for tonal manipulation, where the formula fails again.

In summary, release time in audio compression should not be simplistically derived from tempo.

Remember, the art of audio engineering lies not in formulas but in the symphony of knowledge, experience, and creative intuition.

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